Passports, Travel, Nations: Landmarks

This page highlights landmarks in the history of passport, citizenship documentation and travel surveillance schemes.

1557 de Vitoria’s De Indis Noviter Inventis

1562 Edict of Saint-Germain-de-Pres grants limited rights of assembly to French Huguenots

1646 Grotius’ De Iure Belli ac Pacis Libri Tre

1758 de Vattel’s Droit des gens; ou, Principes de la loi naturelle appliqués A la conduite et aux affaires des nations et des souverains

1804 French Civil Code of 1804 provides model for ‘aliens’ legislation

1815 Britain removes passport requirements

1817 Riot Act in England

1841 Thomas Cook’s first domestic group tour

1842 Prussian aliens law

1848 Netherlands Aliens Act

1855 Cook’s first group tour to Paris

1856 US federal law prohibits states from issuing passports

1861 France removes visa and passport requirements

1867 German Confederation abolishes passport requirements

1870 British Naturalisation Act

1876 United States v Cruikshank decision by Supreme Court establishes broader right of assembly under First Amendment

1907 France abolishes Napoleonic Code restrictions on assembly

1914 most European states reintroduce or tighten passport requirements

1915 valid passport required for everyone entering or leaving the US

1920 League of Nations Paris Conference on Passports & Customs Formalities

1920 Resolution of the League of Nations on Passports, Customs Formalities & Through Tickets

1921 Convention of Gratz on Passports

1921 League establishes High Commission for Refugees

1922 Nansen’s proposal for refugee identification certificate (‘Nansen Passport’) with international recognition as a passport

1924 US Immigration Act of 1924 establishes immigration quotas and requires all aliens arriving at US to present a visa

1926 League hosts a second international conference in Geneva on passport standardisation

1930 Nansen International Office for Refugees established by League

1933 Convention Relating to the International Status of Refugees adopted in Geneva

1937 De Jonge v Oregon and Herndon v Lowry in US re right of assembly

1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees awarded Nobel Peace Prize

1938 League of Nations Convention for refugees from the Saar & Germany

1938 Passports Act 1938 in Australia

1939 US government introduces passport requirement for visiting Canadians

1944 Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention) obliges members to develop and adopt international standards for customs and immigration, including passports

1945 establishment of International Air Transport Association (IATA)

1946 establishment of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

1948 UN General Assembly adopts Universal Declaration of Human Rights

1951 UN Convention on Refugees

1958 ILO Seafarers’ Identity Documents Convention (No. 108)

1958 Victorian Unlawful Assemblies & Processions Act 1958

1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations

1966 International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights

1968 creation of ICAO Panel on Passport Cards

1971 Commonwealth Public Order (Protection of Persons & Property) Act 1971

1977 Laker Skytrain

1980 ICAO standard (Document 9303) on A Passport with Machine Readable Capability

1980 Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction

1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)

1984 machine-readable passports introduced by Australia

1986 UK Public Order Act 1986

1989 EU Code of Conduct for Computerized Reservation Systems

1992 Queensland Peaceful Assembly Act 1992

1996 ICAO Code of Conduct on the Regulation & Operation of Computer Reservation Systems (CRS)

1997 Amsterdam Treaty

1997 Australian federal parliament Joint Standing Committee on the National Capital & External Territories report A Right to Protest

2001 Border Protection (Validation & Enforcement) Act 2001 (BPVE) in Australia

2003 ILO Convention on Seafarers Identity (No. 185)

2003 Maritime Transport Security Act 2003 in Australia

2004 European Commission Decision on the Adequate Protection of Personal Data Contained in the Passenger Name Record of Air Passengers Transferred to the US Bureau of Customs & Border Protection

2004 Aviation Transport Security Act 2004 in Australia

2004 decision in Gilmore v Ashcroft (US)

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1 comment for “Passports, Travel, Nations: Landmarks

  1. Bassi Giuseppe
    7 December, 2010 at 14:47

    innanzitutto Grazie sig.Jonathan
    Grazie a nome mio e spero del Collezionismo, in quanto quello che
    Lei sta’ facendo, e’ sicuramente bello, culturalmente importante
    Il collezionismo di passaporti”in Italia e’ in evoluzione, crescita, di cui 2 persone hanno gia’ buon materiale, i collezinisti in Italia prediligono ancora ,solo Italia e possibilmente prima di Unita”’, inoltre il prossimo anno ci saranno celebrazioni per il 150 anno di unita”’ed esposizioni in generale con pubblicazioni di documenti’.
    Il mio interesse come avra’ notato e’ su Italia,antichi stati, ed epoca prima del 1815 di Francia, Germania fino al 1860 principalmente oltre ad altri paesi, quando vedo che abbiano qualche interesse di transito in Italia ecc,,
    Penso nel prossimo anno di mettere in Web mia collezione ,per scambi e visione ,inoltre sarei orientato alla pubblicazione su’ carta, libro……….
    La seguo con interesse e ringrazio
    le Porgo inoltre un Felice Natale e Buone Feste
    Grazie Giuseppe Bassi

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