The Evolution of the Australian Passport

The Evolution of the Australian Passport

Early Australian passports are rare to spot. I had only this one in the past. If your collection focus is Australia then you should grab such early documents whenever they appear.



The Australian Government first started issuing passports in 1901 following the federation of the colonies.

However, Australia’s first federal passport regulations were not introduced until 3 September 1912. And it was another three years before the Australian Government introduced a mandatory passport system for the first time, mainly for manpower and security reasons.

Many people at the time saw this as a temporary wartime measure, to be rescinded after World War I.

But by the mid-1920s, it was clear that an international system of travel documentation was here to stay.

In 1950, Australia issued a total of 30 000 Australian passports. Fifty years later in 2000, this number had increased to almost 1 450 000. Passport production accounted for 37 tonnes of paper, 95 500 meters of thread, 69 000 meters of gold foil and 1100 liters of glue.

Today, passport offices in Australia and overseas issue around 1.8 million passports a year; and more than 10 million Australians currently hold valid Australian passports, representing just under 50 per cent of the population.

Some key developments in the evolution of the Australian passport include:

1912: The Commonwealth Gazette announces the first set of national passport regulations, covering eligibility, validity and cost.

1916: War Precautions (Passports) Regulations promulgated, requiring every person over the age of 15 entering and leaving the Commonwealth, to be in possession of a passport.

1917: the ‘X’ series passport, one of Australia’s earliest, introduced. During World War I, monitoring and identifying those crossing international borders became critical to the security of Australia and its allies.

1920: ‘A’ series passport introduced, with the word ‘Australia’ and the Commonwealth Coat of Arms on the cover.

1937: ‘A’ series passport covers redesigned to carry the words ‘British Passport Commonwealth of Australia’ and the Commonwealth Coat of Arms.

1938: Passport Act promulgated, stipulating that passports would now only be issued to British subjects.

1948: Nationality and Citizenship Act passed

1949: two new passport series were introduced:

  • B Series passports were issued (within Australia only) to British subjects who were not Australian citizens.
  • C Series passports were issued to Australian citizens.

1950: ‘E’ series passport replaces ‘B’ and ‘C’ series.

1964: ‘G’ series passports introduced, with the British Crown at the top of the cover, the word ‘Australia’ followed by the Commonwealth (Australian) Coat of Arms, and the words ‘British Passport’ at the bottom.

1967: Australian passport covers no longer carry the words ‘British Passport’ but retain the Crown. The word ‘Australia’ appears below the Crown, followed by the Commonwealth Coat of Arms and the word ‘Passport’.

1975: Responsibility for Australian passport functions transferred to the Department of Foreign Affairs (now the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade), from the then Department of Labour and Immigration.

1980: Computerized Passport Issue and Control System (PICS) launched.

1983: Permission of husbands no longer required for the issue of passports to wives.

1984: Passports Act amended to provide that passports can be issued only to Australian citizens. ‘T’ series passport introduced, with Crown emblem removed from cover.

1984: Australian passports include machine readable information and are the first in the world to have a laminate built into the document.

1984: Passport applications must be lodged personally at an official post office or passport office.

1986: Single identity passports introduced, meaning children could no longer be included on their parent’s passport.

1988: ‘H’ and ‘J’ series passports issued with Bicentennial logo.

1988: Women can no longer apply for and receive a passport in their proposed married names, before they are actually married.

1994: Digitized color printing of photograph and signature on the glue side of the laminate introduced.

1995: ‘L’ series passports introduced, with kangaroo motif security laminate.

2003: ‘M’ series passports issued. Included enhanced security features with the personal data page printed by ink jet onto the adhesive surface of the security laminate.

2005: Passport Act overhauled.

The history of the Australian passport reflects in many ways the changes that have occurred in Australian society.

Major influences on the evolution of the Australian passport have included Australia’s emerging sense of national identity, its diverse multicultural society and changing attitudes to gender, families and Indigenous Australians.

International geopolitical and security issues have also had a significant impact. In 2005, Australia became one of the first countries to introduce an ePassport with a digital chip on which the holder’s biographical data is recorded.

Today, Australia is regarded as a world leader in secure passport production and issuance.

The Australian Passport Office (APO) of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade seeks to be at the forefront of passport technology, security and customer service. APO has developed new technology and processes to further improve all aspects of its passport products and service.

Since 1983, APO’s partnership with Australia Post has enabled Australian citizens to apply for passports at most Australia Post outlets. Australia Post provides a nationwide passport service on behalf of APO.

The Australian Passport Information Service (APIS) is operated on behalf of the department by Centrelink and provides a high quality telephone information service to passport clients seven days a week.

Source: APO

The Evolution of the Australian Passport


  1. @G Cranfield
    I also have a K Series Passport. We must be special?? LOL

    Nevertheless, information, as stated for other series, would be interesting, such as finding out why there was no mention about this series in this article??

  2. Hello Tom…I would like to know where can I get a copy of my grandfather’s Australian passport. It was issued somewhere between 1920 to 1930.


    1. Hi Gina, a passport copy is in general never possible to get, as offices don’t makes copies of issued passports. However, you probably can get a copy of the passport application including a passport photo. Please contact your nearest passport office or the office of the city where your father got the passport. Good luck and let me know the result. Cheers, Tom

  3. I need to find when my first Australian passport was issued. I have asked passport office and their records only go back to 1985. I have old passports going back to 1975 and I believe I also had one prior to this. Can you please help me to source records for passports predating 1975. Thank you kindly

    1. Colin, I’m actually surprised the passport office gave you this information. I would assume they have records older than this. Double check with them and ask where are the records before that date. Maybe the National Archive can help you. However, I get this kind of requests often and a passport office should shurley know when you got your first passport. Good luck. Tom

  4. Would a passport issued in October 1917 be similar to a modern passport or would it have been like the one page document shown on this website?


  5. I have a K series passport issued on the 20th May 1992 expired date 20th May 2002. Passport number K135893. But I see no mention of a K series in the above article.

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