Grand Duchy of Finland Passport 1865

Grand Duchy of Finland passport 1865

What a fantastic passport, which I have never seen before. grand duchy Finland passport

In general, there are three chapters in Finnish history: the Swedish period prior to 1809, the Russian period from 1809 to 1917, and the independent period from 1917 to the present. I concentrate on the Russian era.

Finland as a Grand Duchy of Russia grand duchy Finland passport

In the early 18th century, as Sweden lost its status as a strong power, Russian pressure on Finland escalated, and Russia seized Finland in the 1808–1809 war with Sweden.

Finland was only a collection of provinces during the Swedish era, not a country. Stockholm, the capital of the Finnish provinces at the time, was in charge. When Finland was annexed by Russia in 1809, it became a self-governing Grand Duchy. The Grand Duke was the Russian Emperor, and the Governor-General was his representative in Finland.

The Senate, made up entirely of Finns, was Finland’s highest governmental body. The Finnish Minister Secretary of State presented the Emperor with Finland-related matters in St Petersburg. As a result, the Emperor was in charge of Finland’s government, and the Russian authorities were unable to intervene. grand duchy Finland passport

From 1809 until 1825, the enlightened Russian Emperor Alexander I, who served as Grand Duke of Finland, granted Finland substantial autonomy, resulting in the formation of the Finnish state. Helsinki was designated as Finland’s capital in 1812, and the university, which had been established in Turku in 1640, was relocated to Helsinki in 1828.

During the Russian era, the Finnish national movement gained traction. The Kalevala, a Finnish national epic written by Elias Lönnrot, was first published in 1835.

Alexander II’s Language Decree, enacted in 1863, marked the start of making Finnish an official administrative language. Although just one-seventh of the Finnish people spoke Swedish as their first language, Swedish remained the dominant language in Finland until the turn of the century.

After a half-century hiatus, the Finnish Diet was reconvened in 1863. The Diet began meeting regularly after that, and active legislative efforts in Finland began. The Conscription Act of 1878 provided Finland with its own army.

The program of “Russification,” or the eradication of “Finnish separatist,” began during the “first period of oppression” (1899–1905) and continued throughout the “second era” (1909–1917). The Russian Revolution of 1905 provided Finland a little reprieve, and in 1906, a new legislative body to replace the old Estates was established. Finland shifted from a four-estate diet to a unicameral parliament with universal suffrage in a single bound, making it the most significant legislative change in Europe at the time. Finnish women were the first in Europe to gain the right to vote in parliamentary elections.

On December 6, 1917, Parliament approved the declaration of independence drawn up by the Senate under the leadership of P.E. Svinhufvud.

The Passport

The large double-folio document is written in Swedish and German language. Issued under Alexander II, emperor and ruler of all Russia, Tsar of Poland, Grand Prince of Finland. A most rare passport type and a highlight in the collection of any collector of historical travel documents. grand duchy Finland passport

grand duchy Finland passport

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