Grand Duchy of Finland Passport 1865

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Grand Duchy of Finland passport 1865

What a fantastic passport, which I have never seen before. grand duchy Finland passport

In general, there are three chapters in Finnish history: the Swedish period prior to 1809, the Russian period from 1809 to 1917, and the independent period from 1917 to the present. I concentrate on the Russian era.

Finland as a Grand Duchy of Russia grand duchy Finland passport

In the early 18th century, as Sweden lost its status as a strong power, Russian pressure on Finland escalated, and Russia seized Finland in the 1808–1809 war with Sweden.

Finland was only a collection of provinces during the Swedish era, not a country. Stockholm, the capital of the Finnish provinces at the time, was in charge. When Finland was annexed by Russia in 1809, it became a self-governing Grand Duchy. The Grand Duke was the Russian Emperor, and the Governor-General was his representative in Finland.

The Senate, made up entirely of Finns, was Finland’s highest governmental body. The Finnish Minister Secretary of State presented the Emperor with Finland-related matters in St Petersburg. As a result, the Emperor was in charge of Finland’s government, and the Russian authorities were unable to intervene. grand duchy Finland passport

From 1809 until 1825, the enlightened Russian Emperor Alexander I, who served as Grand Duke of Finland, granted Finland substantial autonomy, resulting in the formation of the Finnish state. Helsinki was designated as Finland’s capital in 1812, and the university, which had been established in Turku in 1640, was relocated to Helsinki in 1828.

During the Russian era, the Finnish national movement gained traction. The Kalevala, a Finnish national epic written by Elias Lönnrot, was first published in 1835.

Alexander II’s Language Decree, enacted in 1863, marked the start of making Finnish an official administrative language. Although just one-seventh of the Finnish people spoke Swedish as their first language, Swedish remained the dominant language in Finland until the turn of the century.

After a half-century hiatus, the Finnish Diet was reconvened in 1863. The Diet began meeting regularly after that, and active legislative efforts in Finland began. The Conscription Act of 1878 provided Finland with its own army.

The program of “Russification,” or the eradication of “Finnish separatist,” began during the “first period of oppression” (1899–1905) and continued throughout the “second era” (1909–1917). The Russian Revolution of 1905 provided Finland a little reprieve, and in 1906, a new legislative body to replace the old Estates was established. Finland shifted from a four-estate diet to a unicameral parliament with universal suffrage in a single bound, making it the most significant legislative change in Europe at the time. Finnish women were the first in Europe to gain the right to vote in parliamentary elections.

On December 6, 1917, Parliament approved the declaration of independence drawn up by the Senate under the leadership of P.E. Svinhufvud.

The Passport

The large double-folio document is written in Swedish and German language. Issued under Alexander II, emperor and ruler of all Russia, Tsar of Poland, Grand Prince of Finland. A most rare passport type and a highlight in the collection of any collector of historical travel documents. grand duchy Finland passport

grand duchy Finland passport

FAQ Passport History
Passport collection, passport renewal, old passports for sale, vintage passport, emergency passport renewal, same day passport, passport application, pasaporte passeport паспорт 护照 パスポート جواز سفر पासपोर्ट

1. What are the earliest known examples of passports, and how have they evolved?

The word "passport" came up only in the mid 15th Century. Before that, such documents were safe conducts, recommendations or protection letters. On a practical aspect, the earliest passport I have seen was from the mid 16th Century. Read more...

2. Are there any notable historical figures or personalities whose passports are highly sought after by collectors?

Every collector is doing well to define his collection focus, and yes, there are collectors looking for Celebrity passports and travel documents of historical figures like Winston Churchill, Brothers Grimm, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Read more...

3. How did passport designs and security features change throughout different periods in history, and what impact did these changes have on forgery prevention?

"Passports" before the 18th Century had a pure functional character. Security features were, in the best case, a watermark and a wax seal. Forgery, back then, was not an issue like it is nowadays. Only from the 1980s on, security features became a thing. A state-of-the-art passport nowadays has dozens of security features - visible and invisible. Some are known only by the security document printer itself. Read more...

4. What are some of the rarest and most valuable historical passports that have ever been sold or auctioned?

Lou Gehrig, Victor Tsoi, Marilyn Monroe, James Joyce, and Albert Einstein when it comes to the most expensive ones. Read more...

5. How do diplomatic passports differ from regular passports, and what makes them significant to collectors?

Such documents were often held by officials in high ranks, like ambassadors, consuls or special envoys. Furthermore, these travel documents are often frequently traveled. Hence, they hold a tapestry of stamps or visas. Partly from unusual places.

6. Can you provide insights into the stories behind specific historical passports that offer unique insights into past travel and migration trends?

A passport tells the story of its bearer and these stories can be everything - surprising, sad, vivid. Isabella Bird and her travels (1831-1904) or Mary Kingsley, a fearless Lady explorer.

7. What role did passports play during significant historical events, such as wartime travel restrictions or international treaties?

During war, a passport could have been a matter of life or death. Especially, when we are looking into WWII and the Holocaust. And yes, during that time, passports and similar documents were often forged to escape and save lives. Example...

8. How has the emergence of digital passports and biometric identification impacted the world of passport collecting?

Current modern passports having now often a sparkling, flashy design. This has mainly two reasons. 1. Improved security and 2. Displaying a countries' heritage, icons, and important figures or achievements. I can fully understand that those modern documents are wanted, especially by younger collectors.

9. Are there any specialized collections of passports, such as those from a specific country, era, or distinguished individuals?

Yes, the University of Western Sidney Library has e.g. a passport collection of the former prime minister Hon Edward Gough Whitlam and his wife Margaret. They are all diplomatic passports and I had the pleasure to apprise them. I hold e.g. a collection of almost all types of the German Empire passports (only 2 types are still missing). Also, my East German passport collection is quite extensive with pretty rare passport types.

10. Where can passport collectors find reliable resources and reputable sellers to expand their collection and learn more about passport history?

A good start is eBay, Delcampe, flea markets, garage or estate sales. The more significant travel documents you probably find at the classic auction houses. Sometimes I also offer documents from my archive/collection. See offers... As you are already here, you surely found a great source on the topic 😉

Other great sources are: Scottish Passports, The Nansen passport, The secret lives of diplomatic couriers

11. Is vintage passport collecting legal? What are the regulations and considerations collectors should know when acquiring historical passports?

First, it's important to stress that each country has its own laws when it comes to passports. Collecting old vintage passports for historical or educational reasons is safe and legal, or at least tolerated. More details on the legal aspects are here...

Does this article spark your curiosity about passport collecting and the history of passports? With this valuable information, you have a good basis to start your own passport collection.

Question? Contact me...