Maj Gen Andre Brewster – Boxer Rebellion

Maj Gen Andre BrewsterAndre Walker Brewster served as a career officer in the U.S. Army from December 9, 1862, to March 27, 1942. He earned the rank of major general and held several prominent positions, including inspector general of the American Expeditionary Forces and the United States Army during World War I. Brewster served in the American Indian Wars, Spanish-American War, Philippine Insurrection, and Boxer Rebellion, in addition to serving in World War I. He was awarded the Medal of Honor for his contribution to the Battle of Tientsin during the Boxer Rebellion. Maj Gen Andre Brewster

Brewster served as the American military attaché in China for five years. Later, he enrolled at the Army War College, eventually graduating in 1907. He was named the Army’s temporary inspector general at the start of 1909. He maintained the position until 1913 after confirming the appointment in December. Brewster was given the command of the 65th Infantry Regiment in 1914 and sent to Puerto Rico. Then, he returned to his job as inspector general, holding it until 1917.

During World War I, he served in France as Inspector General of General Headquarters, American Expeditionary Force, from June 1917 to September 1919. (AEF). Brewster’s opinion was valued by AEF commander John J. Pershing, especially when assessing the effectiveness of brigade and division commanders. When Brewster deemed his combat performance ineffective, Robert Houston Noble, commander of the 158th Infantry Brigade, was removed by Pershing when he deemed his combat performance ineffective. Omar Bundy’s departure from leadership and transfer to the command of the understaffed U.S. VI Corps was significantly influenced by Brewster’s dissatisfaction with his performance as the 2nd Division’s commander. Brewster died in Boston on March 27, 1942. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery. Maj Gen Andre Brewster

This is his passport from 1932 showing Brewster and his wife Elizabeth traveling to France. a fantastic (passport) historical piece of a notable U.S. military figure.

Maj Gen Andre Brewster

FAQ Passport History
Passport collection, passport renewal, old passports for sale, vintage passport, emergency passport renewal, same day passport, passport application, pasaporte passeport паспорт 护照 パスポート جواز سفر पासपोर्ट

1. What are the earliest known examples of passports, and how have they evolved?

The word "passport" came up only in the mid 15th Century. Before that, such documents were safe conducts, recommendations or protection letters. On a practical aspect, the earliest passport I have seen was from the mid 16th Century. Read more...

2. Are there any notable historical figures or personalities whose passports are highly sought after by collectors?

Every collector is doing well to define his collection focus, and yes, there are collectors looking for Celebrity passports and travel documents of historical figures like Winston Churchill, Brothers Grimm, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Read more...

3. How did passport designs and security features change throughout different periods in history, and what impact did these changes have on forgery prevention?

"Passports" before the 18th Century had a pure functional character. Security features were, in the best case, a watermark and a wax seal. Forgery, back then, was not an issue like it is nowadays. Only from the 1980s on, security features became a thing. A state-of-the-art passport nowadays has dozens of security features - visible and invisible. Some are known only by the security document printer itself. Read more...

4. What are some of the rarest and most valuable historical passports that have ever been sold or auctioned?

Lou Gehrig, Victor Tsoi, Marilyn Monroe, James Joyce, and Albert Einstein when it comes to the most expensive ones. Read more...

5. How do diplomatic passports differ from regular passports, and what makes them significant to collectors?

Such documents were often held by officials in high ranks, like ambassadors, consuls or special envoys. Furthermore, these travel documents are often frequently traveled. Hence, they hold a tapestry of stamps or visas. Partly from unusual places.

6. Can you provide insights into the stories behind specific historical passports that offer unique insights into past travel and migration trends?

A passport tells the story of its bearer and these stories can be everything - surprising, sad, vivid. Isabella Bird and her travels (1831-1904) or Mary Kingsley, a fearless Lady explorer.

7. What role did passports play during significant historical events, such as wartime travel restrictions or international treaties?

During war, a passport could have been a matter of life or death. Especially, when we are looking into WWII and the Holocaust. And yes, during that time, passports and similar documents were often forged to escape and save lives. Example...

8. How has the emergence of digital passports and biometric identification impacted the world of passport collecting?

Current modern passports having now often a sparkling, flashy design. This has mainly two reasons. 1. Improved security and 2. Displaying a countries' heritage, icons, and important figures or achievements. I can fully understand that those modern documents are wanted, especially by younger collectors.

9. Are there any specialized collections of passports, such as those from a specific country, era, or distinguished individuals?

Yes, the University of Western Sidney Library has e.g. a passport collection of the former prime minister Hon Edward Gough Whitlam and his wife Margaret. They are all diplomatic passports and I had the pleasure to apprise them. I hold e.g. a collection of almost all types of the German Empire passports (only 2 types are still missing). Also, my East German passport collection is quite extensive with pretty rare passport types.

10. Where can passport collectors find reliable resources and reputable sellers to expand their collection and learn more about passport history?

A good start is eBay, Delcampe, flea markets, garage or estate sales. The more significant travel documents you probably find at the classic auction houses. Sometimes I also offer documents from my archive/collection. See offers... As you are already here, you surely found a great source on the topic 😉

Other great sources are: Scottish Passports, The Nansen passport, The secret lives of diplomatic couriers

11. Is vintage passport collecting legal? What are the regulations and considerations collectors should know when acquiring historical passports?

First, it's important to stress that each country has its own laws when it comes to passports. Collecting old vintage passports for historical or educational reasons is safe and legal, or at least tolerated. More details on the legal aspects are here...

Does this article spark your curiosity about passport collecting and the history of passports? With this valuable information, you have a good basis to start your own passport collection.

Question? Contact me...