passport 1941 occupied Hague
The Occupation of the Netherlands passport 1941 occupied Hague
German forces crossed the eastern frontier of the Netherlands in several places early on May 10, 1940, while additional troops landed on the beaches north of The Hague and parachutists dropped near Rotterdam and The Hague seizing vital bridges and isolating the capital. The Dutch Army was relatively small and resistance was complicated by the fact that German points of attack were widely separated. The government immediately appealed to Great Britain for help and a force of 200 Marines and a composite Guards battalion (2nd Battalion Irish Guards and 2nd Battalion Welsh Guards) was dispatched. On May 12th, the German columns from the east linked up with the parachutists. That same day, the British forces arrived and advanced towards The Hague but quickly realized that they would have to be withdrawn without strong reinforcements. On the 13th, Her Majesty Queen Wilhelmina embarked for England in a British destroyer. That night the Dutch government also left. The British troops returned to Dover at noon on May 14th, the day Rotterdam was bombed by some fifty German aircraft resulting in the deaths of numerous civilians and the destruction of a large part of the city. Utrecht was threatened with a similar fate, but in the evening the Dutch forces surrendered. SS issued passport in the occupied Netherlands
During the Occupation
- 234,000 Dutch citizens lost their lives, they died:
- in concentration camps
- in captivity
- by execution
- by acts of war
- from forced labor
- as a consequence of the “Hunger Winter” of 1944-45 (by April 1945, the official daily ration per person in the Netherlands was only 320 calories)
- from sickness, disease, and a general decline in national health as a result of war conditions (ie. lack of food and lack of fuel for heating, cooking, and transportation)
- In 1940 there were 86,000 Jews in Amsterdam
- By 1945 there were only 10,000 Jews in this city
- Anne Frank was one of those who died in the Holocaust
- it was in a house on the Prinsengracht in Amsterdam where Anne Frank and her family hid in an annex
- today, the house is a museum visited by thousands annually
Now, if you are looking at the girl’s passport you could think of Anne Frank, one of the most discussed Jewish victims of the Holocaust.
I actually can’t figure out why URSULA JANKE, a hardly thirteen years old schoolgirl, got her own passport. At that time, the passport law defined that persons of the age of fourteen can apply for their own passport. Was little Ursula an orphan? Clear is she was going back home into the Reich, first to Düsseldorf, then Stuttgart, and finally to Berlin as the stamps of food ration cards show on pages six and thirty-two. Ursula was for in Amsterdam in 1928 and lived in The Hague ever since. In The Hague, her passport with number 3463/41 was issued by the infamous SS (Schutzstaffel) for the occupied Dutch territories on May 16th, 1941. A very interesting passport historical document of WWII and the occupation of the Netherlands. passport 1941 occupied Hague
Johann Baptist Albin Rauter (4 February 1895 – 24 March 1949) was a high-ranking Austrian-born SS functionary and war criminal during the Nazi era. He was the highest SS and Police Leader in the occupied Netherlands and therefore the leading security and police officer there during the period 1940 to 1945.
Rauter reported directly to the Nazi SS chief, Heinrich Himmler, and in the second instance to the Nazi governor of the Netherlands, Arthur Seyss-Inquart. After World War II, he was convicted in the Netherlands of crimes against humanity and executed by firing squad. passport 1941 occupied Hague
FAQ Passport History
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1. What are the earliest known examples of passports, and how have they evolved?
The word "passport" came up only in the mid 15th Century. Before that, such documents were safe conducts, recommendations or protection letters. On a practical aspect, the earliest passport I have seen was from the mid 16th Century. Read more...
2. Are there any notable historical figures or personalities whose passports are highly sought after by collectors?
Every collector is doing well to define his collection focus, and yes, there are collectors looking for Celebrity passports and travel documents of historical figures like Winston Churchill, Brothers Grimm, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Read more...
3. How did passport designs and security features change throughout different periods in history, and what impact did these changes have on forgery prevention?
"Passports" before the 18th Century had a pure functional character. Security features were, in the best case, a watermark and a wax seal. Forgery, back then, was not an issue like it is nowadays. Only from the 1980s on, security features became a thing. A state-of-the-art passport nowadays has dozens of security features - visible and invisible. Some are known only by the security document printer itself. Read more...
4. What are some of the rarest and most valuable historical passports that have ever been sold or auctioned?
Lou Gehrig, Victor Tsoi, Marilyn Monroe, James Joyce, and Albert Einstein when it comes to the most expensive ones. Read more...
5. How do diplomatic passports differ from regular passports, and what makes them significant to collectors?
Such documents were often held by officials in high ranks, like ambassadors, consuls or special envoys. Furthermore, these travel documents are often frequently traveled. Hence, they hold a tapestry of stamps or visas. Partly from unusual places.
6. Can you provide insights into the stories behind specific historical passports that offer unique insights into past travel and migration trends?
7. What role did passports play during significant historical events, such as wartime travel restrictions or international treaties?
During war, a passport could have been a matter of life or death. Especially, when we are looking into WWII and the Holocaust. And yes, during that time, passports and similar documents were often forged to escape and save lives. Example...
8. How has the emergence of digital passports and biometric identification impacted the world of passport collecting?
Current modern passports having now often a sparkling, flashy design. This has mainly two reasons. 1. Improved security and 2. Displaying a countries' heritage, icons, and important figures or achievements. I can fully understand that those modern documents are wanted, especially by younger collectors.
9. Are there any specialized collections of passports, such as those from a specific country, era, or distinguished individuals?
Yes, the University of Western Sidney Library has e.g. a passport collection of the former prime minister Hon Edward Gough Whitlam and his wife Margaret. They are all diplomatic passports and I had the pleasure to apprise them. I hold e.g. a collection of almost all types of the German Empire passports (only 2 types are still missing). Also, my East German passport collection is quite extensive with pretty rare passport types.
10. Where can passport collectors find reliable resources and reputable sellers to expand their collection and learn more about passport history?
A good start is eBay, Delcampe, flea markets, garage or estate sales. The more significant travel documents you probably find at the classic auction houses. Sometimes I also offer documents from my archive/collection. See offers... As you are already here, you surely found a great source on the topic 😉
11. Is vintage passport collecting legal? What are the regulations and considerations collectors should know when acquiring historical passports?
First, it's important to stress that each country has its own laws when it comes to passports. Collecting old vintage passports for historical or educational reasons is safe and legal, or at least tolerated. More details on the legal aspects are here...
Does this article spark your curiosity about passport collecting and the history of passports? With this valuable information, you have a good basis to start your own passport collection.
Question? Contact me...