Scarce US Consulate Lisbon Passport 1943

US Embassies and Consulates during WWII US Consulate Lisbon 1943

There is hardly a country in Europe that was not temporarily occupied by German troops between October 1938 and May 1945 or at least influenced by the Nazi regime. In September 1939, the State Department invalidated all US passports for travel to Europe-which meant that Americans traveling there had to visit a consulate periodically to have their passport revalidated often, it was only revalidated for the direct return home.

The breakdown of diplomatic relations by Germany started in 1941. On December 11, the German government announced the severance of diplomatic ties and declared war on the United States. Following this announcement by Germany, President Franklin D. Roosevelt called on the US Congress, “to acknowledge that war has broken out between the United States and Germany.” US Consulate Lisbon 1943

 

The passport has the No.14 when issued on March 11, 1943, by the vice-consul to Lourdes Jesus Duarte and her Twin brothers! Lourdes was born in 1926, which makes her only 17 years young. The age of the boys is not mentioned but according to the passport picture, they might have been around 14/15 years young. The endorsement on page seven shows that the passport was valid only to return to the USA, valid only for two month-until May 1943. Page nine has another Lisbon Legation stamp. Page eleven shows a Portuguese visa.

The following pages 12/13 showing two passport renewals, both from May 22, 1946, but one extension says until March 11, 1946, and the other says until November 22, 1946. Vice consul then was Worthington.E.Hagerman from Carmel, Indiana. Finally, page 15 shows the exit stamps from Portugal on May 6, 1946, going back home to the United States (no stamp on arriving in the USA). What an adventure for the young girl and the boys.

Worthington.E.Hagerman was appointed clerk at the American Consulate General in Paris in 1919 and from then on at several posts in France, Bordeaux, and Lisbon.

US Consulate Bordeaux 1941
American Consulate Bordeaux. The American Foreign Service Journal Vol.18 No.8, August 1941
US Consulate Bordeaux 1941
American Consulate Bordeaux. Vice-Consul Hagerman seating on the left. The American Foreign Service Journal Vol.18 No.8, August 1941

Only neutral countries like Argentina, Ireland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and Turkey had still functional US embassies/consulates.

Here is an overview of the closure dates of US embassies/consulates. US Consulate Lisbon 1943

Amsterdam–closed July 10, 1941
Antwerp–closed July 15, 1940
Brussels–closed July 15, 1940
Bordeaux–closed June 15, 1941
Paris–closed October 21, 1940
Vichy–opened  July 1941, closed about November 8, 1942–Note:  Vichy did not issue any passports or visas–customers were told to go to Marseille for services.
Lyon—-closed November 8, 1942
Marseille–closed November 8, 1942
Prague–closed March 21, 1939
Rome–closed June 30, 1941
Genoa–closed July 9, 1941
Naples–February 28, 1941
Venice–Closed June 30, 1941
Warsaw–closed July 15, 1941
Budapest–closed December 11, 1941
Vienna– Consulate General closed July 9, 1941
Berlin–closed July 15, 1941
Bremen–closed July 10, 1941
Stuttgart–closed July 2, 1941
Munich–closed July 15, 1941
Cologne–closed August 11, 1941
Dresden–closed July 10, 1941
Frankfurt–closed July 15, 1941
Hamburg–closed July 9, 1941
Leipzig–closed August 14, 1941

In Southeast Asia, things were also complicated, depending on the location. US Consulate Lisbon 1943

Hong Kong–closed December 31, 1941
Manila–closed September 3, 1943 (unclear if this is the closure date, but is the date the consular officers were evacuated on the SS Gripsholm)
Singapore–closed February 9, 1942
Bangkok–closed January 25, 1942
Tokyo–closed December 7, 1941
Kobe–closed December 7, 1941
Nagasaki–closed June 30, 1941
Osaka–December 8, 1941
Yokohama–closed December 7, 1941
Beijing–closed December 7, 1941
Dalian–closed December 8, 1941
Fuzhou–closed January 31, 1942
Guangzhou–closed December 7, 1941
Guilin–opened May 21, 1943, closed September 11, 1944
Harbin–closed December 8, 1941
Hankou–closed December 7, 1941
Jinan–closed December 7, 1941
Macau–closed December 24, 1941
Nanjing–closed December 7, 1941
Shanghai–December 8, 1941
Batavia (Jakarta)–Closed December 27, 1942
Medan–closed February 16, 1942
Surabaya–closed February 22, 1942 US Consulate Lisbon 1943

Please note, though, that the posts across the rest of the globe (the Americas, Africa, India, etc.) were not affected and remained in operation.  However, given that the whole country was focused on the war effort, there would not have been much in the way of leisure travel going on. Americans traveling in those regions either had a good reason for doing so or were already expats, eliminating the need for more passports, which is most probably a reason why they are so scarce, especially from that era and these locations.

 

Many thanks to Lindsay H. from the State Department to provide me with such detailed information, which makes the evaluation of passports from this time much more accurate. The above-displayed passport from the US Legation in Lisbon in 1943 (neutral Portugal), is the only beautiful and outstanding example I could get into my collection.

US Consulate Lisbon 1943

FAQ Passport History
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1. What are the earliest known examples of passports, and how have they evolved?

The word "passport" came up only in the mid 15th Century. Before that, such documents were safe conducts, recommendations or protection letters. On a practical aspect, the earliest passport I have seen was from the mid 16th Century. Read more...

2. Are there any notable historical figures or personalities whose passports are highly sought after by collectors?

Every collector is doing well to define his collection focus, and yes, there are collectors looking for Celebrity passports and travel documents of historical figures like Winston Churchill, Brothers Grimm, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Read more...

3. How did passport designs and security features change throughout different periods in history, and what impact did these changes have on forgery prevention?

"Passports" before the 18th Century had a pure functional character. Security features were, in the best case, a watermark and a wax seal. Forgery, back then, was not an issue like it is nowadays. Only from the 1980s on, security features became a thing. A state-of-the-art passport nowadays has dozens of security features - visible and invisible. Some are known only by the security document printer itself. Read more...

4. What are some of the rarest and most valuable historical passports that have ever been sold or auctioned?

Lou Gehrig, Victor Tsoi, Marilyn Monroe, James Joyce, and Albert Einstein when it comes to the most expensive ones. Read more...

5. How do diplomatic passports differ from regular passports, and what makes them significant to collectors?

Such documents were often held by officials in high ranks, like ambassadors, consuls or special envoys. Furthermore, these travel documents are often frequently traveled. Hence, they hold a tapestry of stamps or visas. Partly from unusual places.

6. Can you provide insights into the stories behind specific historical passports that offer unique insights into past travel and migration trends?

A passport tells the story of its bearer and these stories can be everything - surprising, sad, vivid. Isabella Bird and her travels (1831-1904) or Mary Kingsley, a fearless Lady explorer.

7. What role did passports play during significant historical events, such as wartime travel restrictions or international treaties?

During war, a passport could have been a matter of life or death. Especially, when we are looking into WWII and the Holocaust. And yes, during that time, passports and similar documents were often forged to escape and save lives. Example...

8. How has the emergence of digital passports and biometric identification impacted the world of passport collecting?

Current modern passports having now often a sparkling, flashy design. This has mainly two reasons. 1. Improved security and 2. Displaying a countries' heritage, icons, and important figures or achievements. I can fully understand that those modern documents are wanted, especially by younger collectors.

9. Are there any specialized collections of passports, such as those from a specific country, era, or distinguished individuals?

Yes, the University of Western Sidney Library has e.g. a passport collection of the former prime minister Hon Edward Gough Whitlam and his wife Margaret. They are all diplomatic passports and I had the pleasure to apprise them. I hold e.g. a collection of almost all types of the German Empire passports (only 2 types are still missing). Also, my East German passport collection is quite extensive with pretty rare passport types.

10. Where can passport collectors find reliable resources and reputable sellers to expand their collection and learn more about passport history?

A good start is eBay, Delcampe, flea markets, garage or estate sales. The more significant travel documents you probably find at the classic auction houses. Sometimes I also offer documents from my archive/collection. See offers... As you are already here, you surely found a great source on the topic 😉

Other great sources are: Scottish Passports, The Nansen passport, The secret lives of diplomatic couriers

11. Is vintage passport collecting legal? What are the regulations and considerations collectors should know when acquiring historical passports?

First, it's important to stress that each country has its own laws when it comes to passports. Collecting old vintage passports for historical or educational reasons is safe and legal, or at least tolerated. More details on the legal aspects are here...

Does this article spark your curiosity about passport collecting and the history of passports? With this valuable information, you have a good basis to start your own passport collection.

Question? Contact me...