Tsar Nicholas Anniversary Murder
Execution Tsar Nicholas Anniversary Murder
In the early hours of the morning of July 17, 1918, the deposed Tsar, his wife Alexandra, and their children, Grand Duchesses Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Tsarevich Alexei, were executed by the Bolsheviks at the Ipatiev House. Other members of the Romanov family were killed at Alapayevsk later the same day. On July 16, 1918, the Czechoslovak legions were closing on Yekaterinburg. The Bolsheviks executed the deposed imperial family, believing that the Czechoslovaks were on a mission to rescue them. The Legions arrived less than a week later and captured the city.
When the firing commenced, the bullets flew wildly, some ricocheting off the Romanov children because they had sewn diamonds into their underclothes to keep the family valuables safe, ensuring they could pay their way in the event that they did escape.
The members of the inexperienced death squad, brandishing an assortment of firearms, were themselves hit in the melee. Nicholas died instantly, but several family members were only injured, writhing in their own blood on the basement floor as caustic gunpowder smoke filled the air. Their leader, Peter Ermakov, was drunk at the time and only managed to hit Maria in the thigh as she tried to run for the doors. Tsar Nicholas Anniversary Murder
Still Breathing Tsar Nicholas Anniversary Murder
Two of the girls were still breathing when the bodies were carried out, a fact that has been cited as the origin point for the myth of Anastasia’s escape. Like the shootings, the secret disposal of the victims’ remains was also severely bungled. Tsar Nicholas Anniversary Murder
Yurovsky’s men piled the corpses into the truck, which broke down en route to the nearby Koptyaki woods. Twenty-five accomplices met them, also drunk, who had arrived on horseback bearing lamps and expressed disappointment that the Romanovs were already dead, as they had hoped to have the pleasure of lynching them.
Ermakov, in his stupor, had only brought one shovel, so Yurovsky dismissed the work crew, retaining only five to help with the burial in an abandoned mineshaft. After having stripped the dead of their clothing, looting the hidden jewels, and dousing them in sulphuric acid, Yurovsky realized the mine was too shallow to be secure.
After returning to Yekaterinburg to discuss the problem, it was decided to retrieve the bodies and rebury them in a deeper copper mine to the west.
On route, the truck became stuck in the mud in a hollow known as Porosenkov Log (” Pig’s Meadow”), where, too exhausted to continue, the men dug a mass grave and dumped the corpses, pouring more acid over the remains, smashing the bones to splinters with their rifle butts before concealing their handiwork and returning to town.
But the fate of the Romanov’s was brutal beyond reason.
Rediscovery of Bones
The rediscovery of Nicholas, Alexandra, Olga, Tatiana, and Anastasia’s bones in 1979 by amateur investigator Alexander Avdonin allowed them to be reburied in the family crypt in St Petersburg in 1998. The remains of Alexei and Maria were found in 2007 but have not been reunited with those of their tragic family due to a DNA dispute raised by the Russian Orthodox Church. A century later, the Romanov ghosts are still not at peace. Tsar Nicholas Anniversary Murder
The Passport Tsar Nicholas Anniversary Murder
Here is an example of a passport during the reign of Nicholas II, a large folio document written in Russian and French language. The passport was issued in Vienna in 1911 to Baron Uxküll Gyllenbrand. The passport is signed by Russian Ambassador Mikhail Nikolayevich von Giers, who was ambassador in Romania from 1902 -to 1912, then at a post in the Ottoman Empire.
The mentioned Baron Uxküll Gyllenbrand could be one of the attack’s plotters on July 20, 1944, against Hitler.
Tsar Nicholas Anniversary Murder
FAQ Passport History pasaporte passeport паспорт 护照 パスポート جواز سفر पासपोर्ट
1. What are the earliest known examples of passports, and how have they evolved?
The word "passport" came up only in the mid 15th Century. Before that, such documents were safe conducts, recommendations or protection letters. On a practical aspect, the earliest passport I have seen was from the mid 16th Century. Read more...
2. Are there any notable historical figures or personalities whose passports are highly sought after by collectors?
Every collector is doing well to define his collection focus, and yes, there are collectors looking for Celebrity passports and travel documents of historical figures like Winston Churchill, Brothers Grimm, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Read more...
3. How did passport designs and security features change throughout different periods in history, and what impact did these changes have on forgery prevention?
"Passports" before the 18th Century had a pure functional character. Security features were, in the best case, a watermark and a wax seal. Forgery, back then, was not an issue like it is nowadays. Only from the 1980s on, security features became a thing. A state-of-the-art passport nowadays has dozens of security features - visible and invisible. Some are known only by the security document printer itself. Read more...
4. What are some of the rarest and most valuable historical passports that have ever been sold or auctioned?
Lou Gehrig, Victor Tsoi, Marilyn Monroe, James Joyce, and Albert Einstein when it comes to the most expensive ones. Read more...
5. How do diplomatic passports differ from regular passports, and what makes them significant to collectors?
Such documents were often held by officials in high ranks, like ambassadors, consuls or special envoys. Furthermore, these travel documents are often frequently traveled. Hence, they hold a tapestry of stamps or visas. Partly from unusual places.
6. Can you provide insights into the stories behind specific historical passports that offer unique insights into past travel and migration trends?
7. What role did passports play during significant historical events, such as wartime travel restrictions or international treaties?
During war, a passport could have been a matter of life or death. Especially, when we are looking into WWII and the Holocaust. And yes, during that time, passports and similar documents were often forged to escape and save lives. Example...
8. How has the emergence of digital passports and biometric identification impacted the world of passport collecting?
Current modern passports having now often a sparkling, flashy design. This has mainly two reasons. 1. Improved security and 2. Displaying a countries' heritage, icons, and important figures or achievements. I can fully understand that those modern documents are wanted, especially by younger collectors.
9. Are there any specialized collections of passports, such as those from a specific country, era, or distinguished individuals?
Yes, the University of Western Sidney Library has e.g. a passport collection of the former prime minister Hon Edward Gough Whitlam and his wife Margaret. They are all diplomatic passports and I had the pleasure to apprise them. I hold e.g. a collection of almost all types of the German Empire passports (only 2 types are still missing). Also, my East German passport collection is quite extensive with pretty rare passport types.
10. Where can passport collectors find reliable resources and reputable sellers to expand their collection and learn more about passport history?
A good start is eBay, Delcampe, flea markets, garage or estate sales. The more significant travel documents you probably find at the classic auction houses. Sometimes I also offer documents from my archive/collection. See offers... As you are already here, you surely found a great source on the topic 😉
11. Is vintage passport collecting legal? What are the regulations and considerations collectors should know when acquiring historical passports?
First, it's important to stress that each country has its own laws when it comes to passports. Collecting old vintage passports for historical or educational reasons is safe and legal, or at least tolerated. More details on the legal aspects are here...
Does this article spark your curiosity about passport collecting and the history of passports? With this valuable information, you have a good basis to start your own passport collection.
Question? Contact me...
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