Meet Lora and Ernst Drechsler. I assume they were brother and sister but could have also been a married couple. Both were born in Vienna in 1906 resp. 1908 and both of their German passports were issued in Vienna with the infamous Red J-stamp for Jew. A marker was introduced in October 1938. Since July 1937, Jews were granted passports only under special circumstances, and it became increasingly difficult for Jews to escape Nazi-Germany and annexed Austria (March 1938). The property of emigrating Jews was confiscated, and they were only allowed to travel with minimal luggage and “pocket money.” This was especially the case after begin of World War II on 1 Sep 1939. Escape became most difficult. By 1933 about 500.000 Jews lived in the Reich; by the end of 1944 – only 15.000. German Jewish Escape Internment
|Ernst Robert Drechsler 103423|
Red J-stamp 14.3.1939
Issued in Vienna, 14.3.1939
Occupation: Sales agent
Page 6 has an entry that his name was corrected
Page 7 has a currency control stamp from 28.4.1939
saying luggage is approved. On the same page is a
Fleetwood immigration officer stamps from 4 July 1941
(this stamp must have been applied at a later control)
Page 8 show a currency exchange stamp and a Kent County
Constabulary (Wingham Division) stamp from 15.5.1939
Page 9 is a UK visa granted in Vienna on 5.5.1939 and
Immigration stamp Dover/UK from 12.5.1939
|Lora Drechsler 63899|
Red J-stamp 23.12.38
Issued in Vienna, 23.12.1938
Page 7 shows several money exchange stamps
Page 9 UK visa issued in Vienna on 27.7.1939
Immigration stamp UK/Dover on 22.8.1939
(10 days before the outbreak of WWII)
Page 10 shows a Belgian transit visa issued in
Vienna 29.7.39 & UK stamp
Two historically significant German passports with the infamous Red J-stamp. Luckily they could escape Nazi-Germany just before the outbreak of WWII. Only two of very few Jews surviving the horrors of the Holocaust. By 1944 The Reich was “Judenfrei or Judenrein” by 97%, meaning “cleansed” of Jews. German Jewish Escape Internment
British Civilian Internment 1939-1945
Internment of civilian nationals belonging to opposing sides was carried out in varying degrees by all belligerent powers in World War Two. It was also the fate of those servicemen who found themselves in a neutral country. German Jewish Escape Internment
At the outbreak of war, there were around 80,000 potential enemy aliens in Britain who, it was feared, could be spies or willing to assist Britain’s enemies in the event of an invasion. All Germans and Austrians over the age of 16 were called before special tribunals and were divided into one of three groups: German Jewish Escape Internment
- ‘A’ – high-security risks, numbering just under 600, who were immediately interned;
- ‘B’ – ‘doubtful cases,’ numbering around 6,500, who were supervised and subject to restrictions;
- ‘C’ – ‘no security risk,’ numbering around 64,000, who were left at liberty. German Jewish Escape Internment
More than 55,000 of category ‘C’ were recognized as refugees from Nazi oppression. The vast majority of these were Jewish.
The situation began to change in the spring of 1940. The failure of the Norwegian campaign led to an outbreak of spy fever and agitation against enemy aliens. More and more Germans and Austrians were rounded up. Italians were also included, even though Britain was not at war with Italy until June. When Italy and Britain went to war, at least 19,000 Italians in Britain and Churchill ordered them to be rounded up. This was even though most of them had lived in Britain for decades.
Thousands of Germans, Austrians, and Italians were sent to camps set up at racecourses and incomplete housing estates, such as Huyton outside Liverpool. The majority were interned on the Isle of Man, where internment camps had also been set up in World War One. Facilities were basic, but it was boredom that was the greatest enemy. Internees organized educational and artistic projects, including lectures, concerts, and camp newspapers. At first, married women were not allowed into the camps to see their husbands, but by August 1940, visits were permitted, and a family camp was established in late 1941. German Jewish Escape Internment
That many of the ‘enemy aliens’ were Jewish refugees and therefore hardly likely to be sympathetic to the Nazis was a complication no one bothered to try and unravel – they were still treated as German and Austrian nationals. In one Isle of Man camp, over 80 percent of the internees were Jewish refugees.
More than 7,000 internees were deported, the majority to Canada, some to Australia. The liner Arandora Star left for Canada on 1 July 1940, carrying German and Italian internees. It was torpedoed and sunk with the loss of 714 lives; most of them were internees. Others being taken to Australia on the Dunera, which sailed a week later, were subjected to humiliating treatment and terrible conditions on the two-month voyage. Many had their possessions stolen or thrown overboard by the British military guards.
An outcry in Parliament led to the first releases of internees in August 1940. By February 1941, more than 10,000 had been freed, and by the following summer, only 5,000 were left in internment camps. Many of those released from internment subsequently contributed to the war effort on the Home Front or served in the armed forces.
German Jewish Escape Internment