Lutz/Wallenberg Life Saving Passes. A Testimony

Lutz/Wallenberg Life Saving Passes

Carl Lutz and Raoul Wallenberg are iconic names for righteous diplomats saving Jewish life in Budapest, Hungary, during the German occupation. In late 1944, the Germans took any actions to deport Hungarian Jews to concentration camps. But these two diplomats did everything possible to save as many people as possible by issuing, combined, around 80.000 Schutz-Passes (Protection passes) and Schutzbriefe (Protection letters).

Carl Lutz can be seen as the „inventor“ of such protection documents to save Jewish lives. He experienced the use of such documents in his earlier post as Vice-Consul in Palestine in 1934. Wallenberg and other righteous diplomats later „copied“ this idea to save Jews by issuing such documents.

The documents were issued to the wife of Siegmund Simko, and it’s most likely he had the same documents. Simko was the director of a large steel company, as indicated by the business cards. Plus, there is the Hungarian ID card Mrs. Simko.

Finally, there is a protocol issued by the Hungarian army documenting the confiscation of the Simko flat and interior after they could flee from certain death.

Now it’s documented that a person could probably hold both documents – a Lutz Schutzbrief and a Wallenberg Schutzpass – but I would assume such cases are rare. Till today there has been no testimony by physical document evidence. Hence this document set is indeed unique and historically of significant importance.

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During World War II, many ambassadors, consuls, and employees of diplomatic missions used their special position, immunity, and available resources to actively assist persecuted Jews – largely refugees from occupied Poland. 

The title of Righteous Among the Nations is awarded by the State of Israel to people from all over the world for the selfless help they provided to Jews persecuted by Nazi Germany during World War II. More than twenty-seven thousand people from fifty-one countries, including nearly seven thousand Poles, have received the title of the Righteous Among the Nations.

Lutz/Wallenberg Life Saving Passes

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1. What are the earliest known examples of passports, and how have they evolved?

The word "passport" came up only in the mid 15th Century. Before that, such documents were safe conducts, recommendations or protection letters. On a practical aspect, the earliest passport I have seen was from the mid 16th Century. Read more...

2. Are there any notable historical figures or personalities whose passports are highly sought after by collectors?

Every collector is doing well to define his collection focus, and yes, there are collectors looking for Celebrity passports and travel documents of historical figures like Winston Churchill, Brothers Grimm, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Read more...

3. How did passport designs and security features change throughout different periods in history, and what impact did these changes have on forgery prevention?

"Passports" before the 18th Century had a pure functional character. Security features were, in the best case, a watermark and a wax seal. Forgery, back then, was not an issue like it is nowadays. Only from the 1980s on, security features became a thing. A state-of-the-art passport nowadays has dozens of security features - visible and invisible. Some are known only by the security document printer itself. Read more...

4. What are some of the rarest and most valuable historical passports that have ever been sold or auctioned?

Lou Gehrig, Victor Tsoi, Marilyn Monroe, James Joyce, and Albert Einstein when it comes to the most expensive ones. Read more...

5. How do diplomatic passports differ from regular passports, and what makes them significant to collectors?

Such documents were often held by officials in high ranks, like ambassadors, consuls or special envoys. Furthermore, these travel documents are often frequently traveled. Hence, they hold a tapestry of stamps or visas. Partly from unusual places.

6. Can you provide insights into the stories behind specific historical passports that offer unique insights into past travel and migration trends?

A passport tells the story of its bearer and these stories can be everything - surprising, sad, vivid. Isabella Bird and her travels (1831-1904) or Mary Kingsley, a fearless Lady explorer.

7. What role did passports play during significant historical events, such as wartime travel restrictions or international treaties?

During war, a passport could have been a matter of life or death. Especially, when we are looking into WWII and the Holocaust. And yes, during that time, passports and similar documents were often forged to escape and save lives. Example...

8. How has the emergence of digital passports and biometric identification impacted the world of passport collecting?

Current modern passports having now often a sparkling, flashy design. This has mainly two reasons. 1. Improved security and 2. Displaying a countries' heritage, icons, and important figures or achievements. I can fully understand that those modern documents are wanted, especially by younger collectors.

9. Are there any specialized collections of passports, such as those from a specific country, era, or distinguished individuals?

Yes, the University of Western Sidney Library has e.g. a passport collection of the former prime minister Hon Edward Gough Whitlam and his wife Margaret. They are all diplomatic passports and I had the pleasure to apprise them. I hold e.g. a collection of almost all types of the German Empire passports (only 2 types are still missing). Also, my East German passport collection is quite extensive with pretty rare passport types.

10. Where can passport collectors find reliable resources and reputable sellers to expand their collection and learn more about passport history?

A good start is eBay, Delcampe, flea markets, garage or estate sales. The more significant travel documents you probably find at the classic auction houses. Sometimes I also offer documents from my archive/collection. See offers... As you are already here, you surely found a great source on the topic 😉

Other great sources are: Scottish Passports, The Nansen passport, The secret lives of diplomatic couriers

11. Is vintage passport collecting legal? What are the regulations and considerations collectors should know when acquiring historical passports?

First, it's important to stress that each country has its own laws when it comes to passports. Collecting old vintage passports for historical or educational reasons is safe and legal, or at least tolerated. More details on the legal aspects are here...

Does this article spark your curiosity about passport collecting and the history of passports? With this valuable information, you have a good basis to start your own passport collection.

Question? Contact me...